Session 3 – Churches

Religious Buildings in the Urban Landscape

This week we talked about religious buildings in the urban landscape. We began the session with a visit to Highfield Church, where we looked at how changes in the stucture of the building could offer clues relating to the changes in the local community that the church served. In this case the church showed signs of constant expansion during the late Victorian period as the city of Southamptons suburbs grew. We then came back to the lab and looked at how different religious buildings offer different insights into the changing nature of urban societies and the built environments that they inhabit. Finally we introduced some of the resources and skills neccessary in order to create or modify a record in a local Historical Environment Record. This is an excellent way of contributing to the archaeologial record for an area.   


 

Presentation Notes

Slide 2) St. Nicholas’ church, Little Horwood,  © Copyright Jonathan Billinger and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

Slide 3) Religious buildings within an urban context can take many forms and can occur in a range of contexts. The nature of a religious building can tell us a great deal about the communities which it served. Furthermore, in the fabric of religious buildings we are often able to identify and to track the changes and developments which characterise urban history.

The following presentation will look at a range of religious buildings in Southampton. It will particularly focus on buildings in the northern suburbs of Bassett, Highfield, Portswood and St Denys. These buildings each highlight a different way in which the study of church buildings can reveal the history of the neighbourhoods within which they are situated.

Slide 4) Our first example is All Saints Church on Winchester Road in Bassett. This church is an excellent example of a ‘Tin Tabernacle’ church which could be ordered from a catalogue from the mid 19th Century onwards. This example is thought to date from the turn of the century.  The materials used in the construction of this church (primarily galvanised corrugated iron) mean this style of church is quintessentially industrial in nature.  They were relatively cheap to produce and as such regularly served the needs of rapidly the rapid expansions and shifts in population which characterised the industrial revolution and expansion of the British Empire. In this case the church is thought to have been built to cater to the spiritual needs of the workers from the nearby brickworks.

For more information you might look at this very comprehensive page: http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/tin-tabernacles/tin-tabernacles.html

Slide 5) The Building has changed but the institution remains. Since the 1970s All Saints Church has been in this building. It maintains many of the social characteristics of the original 19th Century institution and incorporates a dual function as a social space and a church.

Slide 6) this Primitive Methodist Chapel in St. Denys tells us a great deal about the communities who lived in this area during the 19th century. Primitive Methodism was a religion with its origins in the potteries of the Midlands and found popularity within working class communities. Chapels were often built with donations and subscriptions from the congregation and can often be found within the communities they served.  It is believed that the community which built this chapel existed for a considerable time prior to the construction of this chapel.

Slide 7)  St. Boniface Church Catholic in Shirley was built in 1927. It is remarkable for its ornate style (described in the Southampton HER as being ‘neo-byzantine’) and for the fact that it is built entirely from brick. This is an apt choice of material considering the predominance of brick production in Hampshire. The presence of a Catholic church of this magnitude is testament to the religious mix which has characterised Southampton during the 20th Century.

Slide 8) Another view of St. Boniface Church

Slide 9) St Denys Church is Anglican and was built in 1867 to cater to the growing suburban population of Southampton. The church accommodated 7-800 people and was built to alleviate overcrowding at Highfield church which to this point had served the entire area. The church is a good example of Victorian civic architecture and was designed by George Gilbert Scott, the architect responsible for Kings Cross station in London. This church represents a striking contrast to the modest Methodist chapel nearby (slide 5) and demonstrates the profound differences in religious practice in this area in the late 19th Century

Slide 10) Internal views of St Denys Chruch

Slide 11) The Victory Centre Gospel church on Portswood High street is a recent addition to Southampton’s religious landscape. It was once the Broadway theatre. Built in 1930 the theatre soon found a new use as an ABC Cinema before becoming a Bingo hall from the 1960s. the re-use of this building as a church is testament to the fact that changes in religious practice are still capable of impacting upon the urban landscape. This phase of the buildings use will inevitably impact upon the fabric of the building and will be a lasting reminder of this phase of Southampton’s history.

Slide 12) The ABC Cinema during the mid 1960s

Slide 13) Internal view of the building today

Slide 14) This building formerly known as Swaythling Methodist Church on Burgess Road is now a multi-church partnership known as 286. It was built in 1931 as part of the re-development (and expansion) of much of suburban Southampton led by architect Herbert Collins. The building was designed by Collins in the Methodist ‘Central Hall’ style and was supposed to offer a range of social activities as well as religious services. The main hall was equipped to operate as a cinema!

The church fulfils much the same function as it always has done. However, the church is no longer exclusively Methodist and is shared with other religious groups.

Slide 15) An interior view of the main hall, note the vast scale of the space and also the range of international flags which reflect the cosmopolitan nature of the current congregation.

Slide 16) The current Methodist congregation now meet in this smaller hall within the same complex. The use of these buildings remains essentially unchanged but the religious character of the community has altered. These subtle changes in use are evident at present but are the kind of details which are quickly lost, highlighting the need for on-going documentation.

Slide 17) Re-use of St Lukes Church in Bevois Valley as a Gurdwara in 1983 reflected changes which had taken place in the balance of populations in nearby St. Marys and Newtown. These changes will leave their marks on the material of these buildings and may give archaeologists of the future clues as to how Southampton’s population developed during this period. It is interesting to consider what the fate of this building might have been had it not been re-used as a communal and religious space.

Slide 18) Gurdwara Nanaksar, also in Bevois Valley provides a striking reminder of the change in character which the religious architecture of Southampton underwent during the 20th century. Whilst these buildings are likely to leave a significant impression on the architectural record it is important to remember that the Sikh community for many years relied upon the use of less dramatic buildings such as the large townhouse which now houses the nearby University of the 3rd Age.  Archaeologically speaking this is a story reminiscent of the development of Primitive Methodist chapel and provides a vivid reminder that we should look beyond the buildings themselves when we consider the religious history of a city.

Slide 19) A Mosque being built on Portswood Road represents the formation of a new phase in the development of religious architecture in Southampton.

Here are the presentation notes as a document that you can download:


 

Recording a Church

Building recording is often one of the major activities for an archaeologist working with standing buildings. The programme of work on a building/complex and the setting of that building/complex can include:

  • Character
  • History
  • Dating
  • Form
  • Development

The outputs of a building survey should take the form of a set of drawings, an archive and a report.

Introduction to Standards and Guidance in Archaeological Practice (ISGAP) has good advice on what form a building survey should take.

ISGAP:  http://www.isgap.org.uk/docs/8

Submitting a record to a HER

How does the HER work?

Gilman and Newman’s site Informing the Future of the Past has guidelines for people who work with HERs and is very useful as a general manual.

Informing the Future of the Past: http://www.ifp-plus.info/

Is there already a record?

To find out what is already on the HER, visit the Heritage Gateway as this links to all of the HER’s in England.

Heritage Gateway: http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/gateway/

Is the HER the right place to submit my data?

English Heritage has selection guides, which will help to identify whether the site that you have collected information on is suitable for the HER.

English Heritage Selection Guides: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/listing/criteria-for-protection/selection-guidelines/

You can submit to the HER directly via the local authority under which the monument/building falls, or you can submit to OASIS.  OASIS is a project that aims to be the primary means for reporting archaeological fieldwork. The OASIS feeds information to the HERs, the NMR Excavation Index, and to the AIP, which is a project that is reviewing the kinds of archaeological fieldwork that has taken place in England.  OASIS also collects Grey Literature (which is literature such as archaeological reports that are not easily searchable on the internet) for archaeological fieldwork, and this is available through the ADS’s Unpublished Fieldwork Reports pages.

There is also the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS), which has a database of portable antiquities. You can submit objects that you have recorded to this site, as long as they are over 300 years old and are not from an archaeological investigation on a site.

OASIS: http://www.oasis.ac.uk/

NMR Excavation Index: http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/collections/blurbs/304.cfm

AIP: http://csweb.bournemouth.ac.uk/aip/

ADS Unpublished Fieldwork Reports: http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/greylit/

Portable Antiquities Scheme: http://finds.org.uk/guide

Filling in the HER

What should I include in the description?

Most local authorities will have a standard form to fill in for an admission to the HER they manage.  These are the core fields recommended by Informing the Future of the Past (IFP) for a monument record:

  • HER number: a number which uniquely identifies the monument record in the HER
  • Other identifiers: reference numbers for the monument in external records, for example Scheduled Monument (SM) number
  • Monument name: a descriptive name by which the monument can be identified
  • Monument type: an index to the type or character of the monument represented on the site
  • Evidence: physical or documentary evidence for the existence of the monument
  • Period/date: the maximum and minimum dates/periods of the monument being described
  • Grid reference: an OS grid co-ordinate locating the monument
  • Administrative unit: the administrative area in which the monument falls, for example county/district/parish
  • Description: a text description about the monument
  • Monument status: a reference to any protection status that the monument has, for example II* Listed
  • Event number: monuments should be linked to relevant event records
  • Source number: all monuments should have at least one link to a source record.

Lancashire County Council has a very comprehensive guide to how to fill in a HER record.  They recommend that you need to find out the following information:

  • Where the site is
  • What the site looks like
  • What you think it might be
  • What its date may be
  • Who recorded it and when

Lancashire County Council HER Guidance: http://www.lancashire.gov.uk/corporate/web/view.asp?siteid=4398&pageid=20334&e=e

Where the site is

Provide a National Grid Reference (NGR) for the site.  There are lots of different ways to find a NGR, most maps will give you guidance at the bottom of how to do this. If you know other information about the site, such as the postcode, or the latitude and longitude (which can be found by putting a pin into Google Maps), then you can use the Grid Reference Finder to create the NGR for you.

Google Maps: http://maps.google.com/

Grid Reference Finder: http://gridreferencefinder.com/

Say what the site is called, with an address. Be as specific as possible. Do not say ‘near to Burley’, but do say ‘200m north of the Ringwood Road junction with Pound Lane and The Cross’.

Give a brief summary of the site. ‘A large stone, possibly a boundary marker.’

The name and the summary is what most people will read, so these combined should tell someone what the site is.

What the site looks like

Give a description of the site. This should be descriptive, but not give information about interpretation yet. Be as brief as possible, but it is better to give a description than to make an assumption about the function of something. So ‘large piece of flint’ is better than ‘boundary stone’.

Lancashire CC suggests asking these questions for this section: Is the site part of a wider landscape or complex of features (such as a bell pit in a coal mining area)? Is it in good condition or ruined? Is there any active erosion or other threat?

Think about what evidence you have for this site. Did you find it on a map, or did you find it when out walking? This will affect how you describe it. ‘Find location’ or ‘Documentary Evidence’. If it is documentary evidence, then say here what the document was.

What you think it might be

This is your opportunity to give an interpretation of the site. If you give an interpretation, try to also say how you came to this conclusion.  Try to use the standardised vocabulary from the thesauri for your description.

Here is the example from the Lancashire CC page:

‘The stone is situated between the Aardvark Fell estate and that of Beeswax Fold. It has no hinge holes or other indications that it may have been used as a gate post, nor is it tall enough for this. It seems most probable that it represents a former boundary stone. The Beeswax estate was established about 1825 (Smith, A, 2001 ‘ History of Anglezarke’ p.23) so the stone must post-date this.’

What its date may be

This may be a single date, a range of dates, or a description. i.e. 1932, 1914-18, Bronze Age.

You may find for this part that the HER record form that you are filling in has standardised fields which comply with the local authority’s HER database. This is where the standardised vocabularies from the thesauri described later in this resource sheet come in useful.  Usual fields are ‘Type’, ‘Period’ and ‘Date’.

To find out additional information about a site, such as whether it is listed or not, a good place to start is often the online GIS for a local authority. In the instance of Southampton City Council, there is an online GIS map, where you will find bomb crater maps, listed buildings, conservation areas, areas of archaeological significance, etc.

Southampton City Council online map: http://map.southampton.gov.uk/gis/Default.asp

The National Heritage List for England has all buildings that are listed in England, so check here for listed information.

National Heritage List for England: http://list.english-heritage.org.uk/

Who recorded it and when

Tell the local authority who you are, and when this site was recorded. The information does not go into the HER normally.

Photos

It is also very useful if you can provide some photographs of the site to accompany the record.

Example Monument Report

Provided by the Lancashire CC.

Site Number 1
Name 100m east of Winkley Barn, Aardvark Fell, Anglezarke Moor
Summary Large stone, possibly a boundary marker
NGR SD 6379718218 (GPS)
Description Large grey stone, c.1m high and 30cm square, standing alone on the edge of a field 100m south east of Winkley Barn. The west face has the initials ‘AF’ carved deeply near the top, and the east face has the initials ‘BF’. Site seen during walk. The stone is situated between the Aardvark Fell estate and that of Beeswax Fold. It has no hinge holes or other indications that it may have been used as a gate post, nor is it tall enough for this. It seems most probable that it represents a former boundary stone. The Beeswax estate was established about 1825 (Smith, A, 2001 ‘History of Anglezarke’ p.23) so the stone must post-date this.
Type Boundary Stone
Period Post Medieval
Date Post 1825
Evidence Structure
Recorder & Date A A Aardvark, 99 Marsupial Street, Accrington, AC1 2XY
T. 0123 456789 E. AnnieAardvark@Dirigible.co.au
Recorded 3 July 2004
Photos OLY8765.jpg, OLY7654.jpg

Monument Report Exercise

Try to complete your own HER record for Highfield Church. Begin at the Highfield Church website: http://www.highfieldchurch.org.uk/

HER number: a number which uniquely identifies the site record in the HER

[This will be given to the record once it has been added to the HER.]

Monument name: a descriptive name by which the site can be identified

Monument summary: a description of the site

Grid reference: an OS grid co-ordinate locating the site

Description: a text description about the site. Try to use as much standardised vocabulary as you can

Monument type: an index to the type or character of the monument represented on the site

Evidence: physical or documentary evidence for the existence of the site

Period and/or date: the maximum and minimum dates/periods of the site being described

Administrative unit: the administrative area in which the site falls, for example county/district/parish

Monument status: a reference to any protection status that the site has, for example II* Listed

Data Standards and Glossaries for HERs

English Heritage has an index of thesauri for National Monuments Record, which you should use to create a record of a building.

English Heritage National Monuments Record Thesauri: http://thesaurus.english-heritage.org.uk/frequentuser.htm

The thesauri that you are likely to find most useful are the Monument Types list, the Building Materials list, the mda’s Archaeological Objects list, and FISH.  FISH is the Forum on Information Standards in Heritage, and is a vocabulary managed by the Council for British Archaeology (CBA). It has two major standards MIDAS and INSCRIPTION. MIDAS is a  INSCRIPTION is a collection of lists of words that are for the standardisation of inventory databases. If you are creating a database for an archaeological project, you will find it very useful.

FISH: http://www.fish-forum.info/

MIDAS: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/midas-heritage/

MIDAS has words like ‘Condition Date –The date when an assessment of the condition of a Heritage Asset was made.’ And ‘Production Method – The primary means used to manufacture an artefact.’

INSCRIPTION: http://www.fish-forum.info/i_lists.htm

INSCRIPTION includes lots of different types of wordlists:

  • Simple wordlists which are useful to classify a site. Such as ‘Good – all or nearly all features of interest are well preserved for the period they represent. No sign of active damage.’
  • Hierarchical which are organised into a hierarchy, such as ‘excavation’ à ‘open area excavation’ à ‘trial trench’.
  • Complex which are list with lots of components, such as ‘post medieval’ à ‘default minimum date: 1540’ and ‘default maximum date: 1900’.
  • Thesauri which support different types of relationship so that terms can be hierarchical and related to other terms, such as ‘barrow’ being a broad term for ‘round barrow’, or ‘football ground’ and ‘football pitch’ being related terms.

Each thesaurus has a slightly different configuration and convention. All of the thesauri through the EH NMR Thesauri site use the following abbreviations:

Use Preferred Term
UF Use For
SN Scope Note
CL Class name
BT Broad Term
NT Narrow Term
RT Related Term

These make a lot more sense when you see them next to the record itself.  For example, the thesaurus class for RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY terms has the following record for a ‘Font’:

FONT
UF Submersion Font
SN A vessel, usually made of stone, which contains the consecrated water for baptism. Use a broader monument type if possible.
CL RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY
RT BAPTISTERY

In the Font example, a Subversion Font should also be referred to with the term Font. The Scope Note gives us more information, telling us that the Font is a vessel made of stone, containing water for baptism. The Class Name is RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY, so that we remember which class the term falls under. The Related Term is BAPTISTERY.

Informing the Future of the Past also has a very good index of online data standards.

Informing the Future of the Past Data Standards: http://www.ifp-plus.info/Websites.htm

Download the worksheet for HER:

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Session 2 – Online Archives and Collections

This session looked at how we can identify which online archives or collections might be useful for a particular topic, and also had a practical where we used the Web to find some archival materials for a topic.

This is the transcript (approximate) from the session:

Slide 1:

Firstly, we must identify where archival materials can be found.

•Museums
•Archives
•Libraries

Now a lot of the materials that we would have traditionally gone to one of these kinds of institutions in order to access has now been made digital, and made available online.

In addition to this, there are materials that are available online, that are invaluable to research, that are not associated with an archive organisation.  This can be anything from people’s personal websites with old photographs and YouTube videos, to companies’ online catalogues and websites.

Slide 2:

Whilst this is not a definitive list of the kinds of resources that exist, you might find it useful to classify archival materials in this way:

Written Materials – these are usually in the form of a collection or an archive.

Objects or artefacts – these are generally held within collections.

Research data – these are published within a data repository.

Film & sound – these are mostly within media libraries.

Its useful to think of archival materials in these ways, as this provides a method for brainstorming what sorts of materials will be available about the kind of topic you are researching, and therefore what kinds of places the resources will be held.  Doing an exercise like this will help to discount kinds of archives that are likely to be less fruitful to query.

Slide 3:

Traditional Methods: What can I get online?

Most research into archives for history, local history in particular, will end in a visit to a physical archive.  But there is now much preliminary research that can be carried out online, before needing to visit an archive in person.

5% of the National Archives’ materials are now online, through the Discovery Catalogue.
NA Discovery Catalogue: http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/SearchUI/

Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (usually known as the Historical Manuscripts Commission or HMC) was set up in the late 1800s to record the locations of archives for history study.  The HMC’s numerous indexes, publications, guides and annual accession lists are being added to the National Register of Archives (NRA).  The indexes are not currently online, but the plan is to do this in the very near future.

HMC on the NRA: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nra/default.asp

Over 2000 institutions in England have now made their archives publically available through the ARCHON Directory.  ARCHON includes contact details for record repositories in the UK, and some institutions outside of the UK if they hold substantial collections of manuscripts that are recorded in the National Register of Archives indexes.  So this is always a good starting point for research; although many of these archives will not have the actual archival materials available online, although in many cases, often the index information will be enough to begin your research.

ARCHON: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/archon/default.htm

Because we are archaeologists, we can use much more than just written archives.  There are objects too, and research data, all available online, that we can make use of before we need to visit a building somewhere.

Slide 4:

Most of the time, when researching archival materials online, you will go to the same institutions that you would visit in the real world.  Museums, archives, libraries are the most common places to begin when researching into archaeology and history.

Archives tend to mostly have online indexes of the archival materials that they hold. But sometimes they have also the actual materials. Usually in the form of transcripts, but sometimes also in the form of digital versions of the materials themselves.

Museums have online exhibitions of objects held in the collection – displaying details of objects online thematically. But they also increasingly have user interfaces to the collections database, where you can access the actual records of the objects. Usually this takes the form of the most basic accessions information, but sometimes more data is available, such as images, transcriptions if appropriate, and exhibition and conservation details.

Slide 5:

Its helpful to think of the availability of archival materials online as being situated along a continuum: from offline to online.

Offline through to Online:

  • Offline –  There is no online record available at all.
  • Partially Offline –  Index of records online, but the record itself is offline.
  • Partially Online –  Both index and transcript of the record online.
  • Online –  Index, transcript, and data of record online.

The usefulness of the availability is very dependent on the reason that you are looking for the archival material in the first place. i.e. Offline isn’t necessarily going to negatively affect your research, so don’t discount resource locations just because there are no materials online.

Slide 6:

The first thing to do is to think about why you are doing what you are doing, and then what you are actually doing.  Having a clear understanding of the topic of your research and then the purpose of your research will help you to identify what archives to begin with.

Slide 7:

Different institutions have different concerns for the items in their care.

  • Archives tend to have a focus on the content of the item, and so generally this is what will be the priority to get online.
  •         e.g. the text from a letter
  • Museum will focus usually more on the object itself, and will want this to be the first part of the record that they get online.
  •         e.g. the letter itself
  • Libraries have a multi-purpose focus. Traditionally they tended to put the reference to the record from the catalogue online, but increasingly this is changing to digital access to the item itself.

Slide 8:

Engaging with Objects Online:

http://viewer.soton.ac.uk/viewer/image/MS137_AJ95_150_4/15/LOG_0000/

Slide 9:

Reflectance Transformation Imaging:

http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/ptm/antikythera_mechanism/index.html

Slide 10:

3D Printing:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Se7IflUFnk

Slide 11:

PRACTICAL #1

We’re going to do a brainstorm all together, thinking about how we identify which kinds of sources are likely to be the most useful for the topic that we are researching.

We’ll go through three ideas for topics:

  • Royal Visits to Southampton
  • Romans in St. Denys and Portswood
  • Basque refugees arriving in Southampton.

Slide 14:

We’ve talked about specialised organisations dealing with archival materials, and how these resources are available online in different forms.  The next thing to consider are the individuals who are adding archival materials to the web.

Increasingly, there are web-based services that make sharing content online incredibly easy, and this has led to collections that would previously very rarely have been available in the public domain being released online.
Family holiday videos from the 1950s shot on 8mm film are being added to YouTube, postcard collections from the 1900s are being uploaded to Flickr, and diaries and journals are being created on blogs like WordPress.

YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/

Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/

WordPress: http://wordpress.com/ 

The neat structuring of many of these web services means that many of us are inadvertently engaging in quite advances archival practices when we are uploading content.  Flickr and YouTube ask for more and more metadata about items being uploaded; we’re adding everything from categories, keywords, locations, dates, and usage rights to videos and photos that we upload.  Blogs neatly organise our content into structured dated journal entries, with options for keywords and categories also being used more and more.

Slide 15:

We are archivists. The web makes it easier than it ever has been before to add archival materials for public consumption.  But is it making it easier to find that content?

Slide 16:

Three key ways to find information online:

ARCHIVING INSTITUTIONS:

By this we mean the main websites of organisations. These are a good place to start if you have quite a good idea of what you are looking for.

INDEXES OF WEBSITES USING ARCHIVES:

EuroDocs is an index of websites containing or using archives. Sorted by country, then period, then topic, this is a wiki.  A wiki is a website that has been created by lots of editors.  The wiki is managed by the Brigham Young University, so is reliable as a good starting point for a quick overview of a period.

EuroDocs: http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Main_Page

SEARCH ENGINES:

This can actually be very fruitful. Again, a lot of your success will be down to successfully identifying in the first place whether a search engine will be the most appropriate way to find resources.  For instance, Google has a News search facility, which returns great results if searched by newspaper and year range.

Google News Advanced Search: https://news.google.com/news/advanced_news_search?as_drrb=a

Slide 17:

But can we find the content added by individuals?

Locating individuals’ archival materials is often problematic. Unlike a large organisation specialising in archiving, individuals adding content to the web may not be aware of the methods for making their content more findable online.

Luckily, many people are using services like Flickr and YouTube, which are very good at indexing content, and rely on their search facilities as a major part of their business model. You’ll notice when you watch a video on YouTube, a list of suggested videos will come up with related content.

So these platforms are the first places to start, particularly if you would like to get a good overview of a topic, such as getting more contextual information about a particular period or place.

Finding content created by individuals as part of individual websites can be tricky.  A search engine is your best bet for this task.  It can often wield surprising results.  I put into Google ‘Transport Southampton Buses Old Photographs’ and came up with an extensive archive for bus photographs, with user added comments with information about the bus companies based in Southampton throughout history.  The comments have names and dates, but little reference information.  However, there are some useful photographs and there is a way to contact the administrator directly with queries. http://www.old-bus-photos.co.uk/?cat=175

In the session on archives, we’ll be looking in depth at the ways that we can critically analyse a source once we have found it, and this methodology applies to online materials just as much as offline items, so in Session 5 this will be covered.  But in the meantime, when analysing a source, it is important to note that we must think about:

  • Authenticity – external criticism of the material
  • The meaning – internal criticism of the material – interpreting the content (context is important here)
  • Reliability – including influences on the author
  • Bias – this doesn’t make a document useless!
  • Gaps in the record
  • Comparing to other sources
  • Hidden traces – e.g. information that is incidental to a testimony

We will be going over these in detail in Session 5, for now its useful to merely bare in mind that we cannot always trust what we see, and that what we are seeing may not be all that a source can tell us.

The real gems are the personal archives set up as websites by individuals.

Slide 18:

PRACTICAL #2

Now we’re going to split up into three groups and each group will tackle one of our three topics:

— Royal Visits to Southampton

— Romans in St. Denys and Portswood

— Basque refugees arriving in Southampton.

We’ll spend 20 minutes searching online for one or two resources that tell us about the topic our group has been assigned.  Aim to look for an institutionally based source and an individual’s source.  We’re going to work through the following questions to think about how useful the source is:

The slides shown in class:

Slides with transcript:

Practical 1

The notes we made during our brainstorm for the three topics for research (click on the photo to see the full size image):

Notes from Session 2, Practical 1

Useful Resources identified in class

Romans in St. Denys and Portswood:

Historic Environment Record (HER) – through Heritage Gateway – http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/gateway/

HER for Hampshire County Council – http://historicenvironment.hants.gov.uk/AHBSearch.aspx

Hampshire Museums Service Online Collections: http://www3.hants.gov.uk/museum/collections

Southampton Local History and Heritage – http://www.southampton.gov.uk/leisure/localhistoryandheritage/

Southampton Museums Service – www.southampton.gov.uk/leisure/localhistoryandheritage/museums-galleries/default.asp#0

Southampton Archaeology – www.southampton.gov.uk/leisure/localhistoryandheritage/archaeology/default.asp#0

Sea City Museum – http://www.seacitymuseum.co.uk/

Archaeology Data Service – http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/

— ArchSearch(for items)- http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archsearch/

— Archives (for whole collections of materials) – http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/

Ordnance Survey- Old Maps – http://www.shop.ordnancesurveyleisure.co.uk/products/more-maps/old-maps [NOT FREE]

Old Maps – http://www.old-maps.co.uk/index.html [ALTERNATIVE – ALSO NOT FREE, AND USES OS]

Local Authority Planning GIS mapping web services:

Southampton City Council Online Maps – http://map.southampton.gov.uk/gis/Default.asp [Has 1846 and 1870 town maps available as a layer, see ‘Change Background Map’. Also has WWII Bomb sites, sites of Archaeological Interest, and Listed Buildings.  These are all well hidden! There is a small button above the map that looks like two arrows, under the heading ‘User Options’, if you click on this, some additional layers will appear in the left hand toolbar.  Click on ‘Add Individual Layers to Map’ click on ‘History and Heritage’. Then click on the names of the layers that you would like to see. You will notice that a little cross appears in the box next to the title of the layer. You need to refresh the map now, in order to see those layers you have selected, so scroll down and at the bottom of the list of layers you will see a button: Update Map. Click on this and the little crosses will turn into little ticks. This shows that the map has been updated. Now you will be able to look at those layers on the map (you may have to zoom in to see the details). ]

20th Century Royal Visits:

Newspapers – using Google News Advanced Search – https://news.google.com/news/advanced_news_search?as_drrb=a

Local Museums & Archives (see above).

National Archives, ARCHON Directory – http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/archon/

Gazette

Basque Refugees:

Pathe – http://www.britishpathe.com/

BBC Motion Gallery – http://www.bbcmotiongallery.com/

Open Culture –http://www.openculture.com/

British Library’s Sound Archive (for oral histories) – http://sounds.bl.uk/

Basque Refugees Archive – http://www.basquechildren.org/

Hampshire Record Office Online Catalogues – http://www3.hants.gov.uk/archives/catalog.htm

Download this list of useful resources for the three topics worked on in class from scribd here: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110079950

Practical 2

Worksheet used in class for practical 2:

Session 1 – Introduction

In the first session for the Urban Archaeology module we introduced the idea of ‘Urban Archaeology’ as distinct from archaeology or history, and discussed what the course aimed to cover. We all introduced ourselves, talking about what inspired us to first become interested in archaeology, and what we thought of when we heard the word ‘Archaeologist’.

After the coffee break, we went through each week’s contents, and talked about the topics that we will cover.  The area of St. Denys, Portswood and Highfield will be used as the case study for each week, to give a focus to the skills that we are learning. Each session will have a practical component and many sessions will be delivered off-site at various locations within the study area.

This is the abridged presentation from the session.  If you visit slideshare, you can download this PPT onto your own computer.  Each week we will add any materials that were discussed or handed out onto either slideshare (for presentations) or scribd (for paper handouts).

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We hope you enjoy the course!

Presentation: 

 

Weekly Outline Handout: 

Introducing Gareth Beale


My name is Gareth Beale, I am an archaeologist with a specialism in computer graphics, digital technologies and the representation of archaeology.

I began my archaeological career at the age of 8 excavating pieces of broken glass, rusting metal and musket balls from my parents garden. Many years later I went to Exeter University to study archaeology before coming to the University of Southampton to do an MSc in archaeological computing. I am now in the final stages of my PhD research which investigates the potential use of computer graphics techniques as a tool for study Roman painted statues from Herculaneum in Italy.

My other major historical passion lies in the urban and industrial archaeology of the Westcountry and the South Coast of England (possibly as a result of the broken glass, rusting metal and musket balls)

Introducing Nicole Beale

I am an archaeologist with a background in history of art, museums and technology.

My love of archaeology began as a college student when in 1996 I volunteered at Culverwell, a windswept Mesolithic settlement site on Portland, Dorset, where I sat in a hut writing accession numbers on 12,000 year old snail shells for a whole summer.

In 2002 I graduated from the University of Sussex with a degree in History of Art, I worked for universities in the UK as  an eLearning Co-ordinator from 2002-2007 whilst I studied for a PgCert in Teaching Support and an MSc in Archaeological Computing.  Then I worked as the Assistant Curator for a local authority museum, later moving to Hampshire County Council where I was the New Media Museums Education Officer.  Last year I returned to the University of Southampton where I was awarded funding to carry out an MSc in Web Science, followed by a three year PhD.

2012-3 is the second year of my PhD researching into the impact of the web on museums practice.

My website is called The Cultural Heritage Web, and you can read all about my work there.